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The Carthaginians ruled Malta before they were ousted by the Romans in about 250 BC during the Punic Wars. There are strong reasons to believe the Carthaginian General Hannibal (the man who led the elephants over the Alps to attack the Roman Empire in the Second Punic War) was actually born in Malta.
Be that as it may it is not the beginning or the end of the history of the Maltese islands and, as I have countlessly written many times before, and will do so again, wherever you dig in Malta and Gozo you are bound to come up with something historical because considering the miniscule smallness of the Islands, the volume of square metre history pro rata is the highest in the world.
The latest find was the discovery of a Punic tomb dating back over 2,000 years when employees from the Malta Water Services Corporation were carrying out maintenance works in the southern region of Malta, near Zejtun.
The tomb was still sealed and when opened was found to reveal a number of urns containing cremated human bones, probably the remains of an adult and several children as established by researches so far.
An amphora was found together with two urns, an oil lamp, a glass perfume bottle and a number of pottery vessels, all typical of the Punic period.
During the Punic and Roman periods, the burial rituals were changed with the bodies sometimes being cremated and sometimes being interred intact in a grave. The cremation process required the use of a number of resources including a store of wood and needed the presence of a person to oversee the cremation and this used to take several hours.
The items found in the tomb were removed and taken to a laboratory where the pottery and bones were consolidated, cleaned, analysed and labelled.
What I find amazing when inspecting pictures of the items is that although these are over 2,000 years old, there is a striking resemblance to the many types of shapes of pottery still used today.
Some months back another highly precious discovery that probably goes back at least 2,500 years was found while digging was taking place in a stretch of private land at Tarxien when a tomb that had been lying there undisturbed throughout all these years, was uncovered.
Tarxien, similar to Rabat in the northern part of Malta, is an area of Malta packed with historic remains, including the world-famous Hypogeum underground burial cemetery, catacombs and the Hal Saflieni Stone Age Temples.
The undisturbed burial site, with its original stone sealing slab still in place, was unearthed by a team of archaeologists with the architecture and consultancy firm QPM Limited working in conjunction with Malta’s Superintendence for Cultural Heritage.
Experts stated the find in such an undisturbed condition was a rare occurrence in Malta and included a chamber with an intact set of burial equipment. The urns that lined the sides of the chamber contained ashes probably from cremation rituals and there was an assortment of small pots and amphora containing funeral items.
Later it was ascertained that a further two skeletal remains of adults were found in a further cluster of tombs. Later, the National Heritage Ministry confirmed that in 1974 another tomb had been discovered in the area.
Catacombs and evidence of burial rituals have been found throughout the Islands, mostly Roman as well as Punic related. We recently published a revised version of our Privacy Statement and Terms & Conditions.
The islands fell under Roman rule in about 250 BC and were declared a ‘municipium’, that is a free town. The Roman six hundred year rule of Malta, before the collapse and disintegration of the Roman Empire in the 4th Century AD, had various significant features but they also left behind a number of unique Roman remains.
Perhaps the most significant was the shipwreck of Paul of Tarsus (later declared the Martyr St Paul) estimated to have taken place in about 60 AD, where he converted the islands to Christianity while on his way to Rome to stand trial after claiming his right to do so as a Roman citizen.
In time, the 10th February was declared as the date for the commemoration of his arrival (via shipwreck) in Malta, celebrated with much pomp and circumstance in the capital city Valletta by the Parish of St Paul’s Shipwreck, a gem of a church in the capital city.
History 2,000 years ago being history, some contend this to be nearer the date when he actually left Malta to continue his travels to Rome and that he was probably washed ashore sometime in November.
The 600-year sojourn of the Romans in the islands are still very much manifest today in various important remains, mostly centred around the old Maltese capital city Mdina, which they named ‘Melite’ (thought to have originated from the Greek word for honey), but later renamed Mdina by the Arabs after their own city of Medina today in Saudi Arabia, second importance to Mecca.
On the outskirts of Mdina are two complex burial chambers, catacombs, as Roman Law prohibited burials to take place inside a city. These are the St Paul’s Catacombs and the St Augustine Catacombs.
Malta seems to have prospered under the Romans in a lengthy period of relative peace and began to be mentioned in various Roman documents. The Roman Senator and orator Cicero commented on the embellishment of the Temple of Juno (found near Marsaxlokk and the site of a former Phoenician brothel for sailors) and the extravagance of the Roman Governor at the time!
In the late 19th Century the ‘Domus Romana’ was excavated near Mdina, a lavish villa containing floor mosaics and marble statues, some depicting the reigning imperial family.
Nearby a complex of Roman baths was also excavated, compete with an underground network of pipes carrying hot water and steam to warm the waters in the baths.
The catacombs were discovered in Rabat (another Arabic name), then a stretch of agricultural land on the outskirts of Mdina but today a thriving town of its own. These included a number of Jewish menorah tablets signifying clearly that Jewish people were also interred there.
Another significant site was discovered in Birzebbuga (another Arabic name meaning a well of olives) which included an enormous water cistern of ten cubic metres and an olive crusher, providing the precious olive oil so much esteemed at the time.
Some years ago Heritage Malta commemorated the lengthy and elaborate funeral rituals during Roman times, an enactment open to the public.
The lengthy ritual included a person making an eulogy speech, followed by musicians, then followed by paid wailers who cried and wailed in anguish over the body. A mimer also imitated the life form and achievements of the deceased person followed by slaves who had been released from slavery as an act of benevolence following the person’s death. Others carried funeral masks while bringing up the rear would be the funeral bier bearing the body of the deceased person, surrounded by family and relatives.
A funeral meal which started in Punic times and continued in the Roman tradition was held, with a meal on the day of the funeral, as well as on the following nine days during which visits to the catacombs were held. A further meal on the anniversary of the death was held as well as another meal on the day commemorating the dead known as ‘Mortem’, an event known as the Roman ‘parentalia’ – today reflected by All Souls Day in November although in Roman times this was between the 13th and 21st February.
The meal was held on tables carved out of stone in the catacombs known as ‘agape’ and these are now said to be unique because they do not exist anywhere else in the Mediterranean region.
The tables were placed in a particular place in the catacombs, generally somewhere near the entrance, tables found in pairs and situated near the entrance probably to enable a better lighting effect but also to try and avoid the smells of decaying corpses. The meal would normally be among those family members who were close to the deceased person. Space was limited and the persons attending had to lie on their side, on their elbow, and eat with one hand.
“Put a penny aside – it may come in handy tomorrow”
The equivalent of being thrifty and saving for a rainy day.