Dwejra's famous natural history window known as 'The Azure Window'.

Dwejra’s famous natural history window known as ‘The Azure Window’.

Never mind London Bridge falling down – what about our Dwejra Azure Window Bridge – is it on the way down? Dwejra is a fascinating little spot in the north west of Gozo, just north of the little village of San Lawrenz. It is a mostly uninhabited area but it has a fascination of attractions well beyond its minute size with its prehistoric natural sites – the results of earthquakes, upheavals and exposure to summer and winter elements.

 The tell-tale fissure in the window that may eventually cause its collapse.

The tell-tale fissure in the window that may eventually cause its collapse.

One of these is Fungus Rock (known in Maltese as ‘Il-Ġebla tal-Ġeneral’ i.e. ‘The General’s Rock). This is a tiny island that is just 60-metres high, a massive lump of limestone that is slightly offshore. However, the most remarkable feature is the reverence that was paid to it by the Knights of St John between the 14th and 16th Centuries when they discovered a flowering plant that only grew on this rock and because of its repulsive smell was classed as being a fungus – which it is not.

 The Dwejra Window - blue sea and fossil encrusted shores.

The Dwejra Window – blue sea and fossil encrusted shores.

The Knights believed it had magical curative powers for healing war wounds and for curing bouts of dysentery. In 1764 it was placed ‘out of bounds’ by Grandmaster Pinto because of extensive pilfering of this prized plant which the Knights deemed so precious they even presented it as a gift to distinguished visitors.

Gozo's Fungus Rock.

Gozo’s Fungus Rock.

Pinto decreed that anybody caught pilfering would be given a three year sentence as a slave oarsman on the Order’s galleys – stiff enough to deter anybody because this was a virtual death sentence. Pinto’s servants continued to pick the plant for him thanks to a rustic cable car contraption which he had rigged to make a heavily-guarded passageway between the island and the mainland.

The plant Cynomorium-coccineum-2 sytange that grows on Fungus Rock and was said to have curative powers.

The plant Cynomorium-coccineum-2 sytange that grows on Fungus Rock and was said to have curative powers.

The whole area is a magnet for divers and snorklers because of its deep blue, clear water and an underground maze of caves and fissures that teem with fish. Unfortunately deaths of divers occur frequently despite all precautions. The nearby exposed rocks are encrusted with marine fossils that have also sadly suffered over the years with people chipping away to take home souvenirs.

 Another view of Fungas Rock.

Another view of Fungas Rock.

However, the real prize at Dwejra is the fantastic Azure Window, a natural rock window which very unfortunately is now in great peril. Surveys have established that the submerged rock basis has been gradually deteriorating because of rough sea battering and underwater swirling currents while the exposed areas have taken their toll because of high winds, rain and scorching sun and are continuing to crumble.

 Dwejra's natural Inland Sea.

Dwejra’s natural Inland Sea.

Nothing can be done about the submerged areas but the Malta Tourism Authority has now strictly prohibited people – mostly tourists – walking over the window to take home souvenir pictures. The window has been classed as one of the world’s natural wonders – but for how long now?

 The natural tunnel linking the Inland Sea to the open sea - a bonus for boatmen and tourist trips.

The natural tunnel linking the Inland Sea to the open sea – a bonus for boatmen and tourist trips.

To complete a trio of fascinations, a natural rock tunnel has created a small inland sea, much visited and much prized with boatmen running regular trips from the inland sea, through the tunnel and out into the open blue sea.

 Sometimes the Inland Sea tends to stagnate in hot weather.

Sometimes the Inland Sea tends to stagnate in hot weather.

On the southern side of Malta, the small island of Filfla (just slightly larger than Fungus Rock and flatter) is suffering the same underwater erosion, sadly accelerated during the 1950s and 1960s when Filfla was used for bombing practice by the British RAF.

 Another lesser known inland sea known as The Blue Hole, in Gozo too.

Another lesser known inland sea known as The Blue Hole, in Gozo too.

Looking directly towards Filfla is the Zurrieq Blue Grotto, a natural rock archway, a fascination of crystal clear blue sea and coloured sandy bottom, another magnet for tourists and a roaring trade for boatmen. Again, the authorities have had to intervene to prevent curious tourists and locals alike from clambering over the archway because of the damages they cause.

 The Blue Grotto archway at Zurrieq.

The Blue Grotto archway at Zurrieq.

Near the sea but further inland at Birżebbuġa is the wondrous cave of Għar Dalam (“Cave of Darkness”), another natural heritage site with a history and extinct but living proof that Malta and Gozo were a part of Africa but also a part of southern Europe before tremendous earthquakes caused them to become islands in the centre of the Mediterranean.

 The small island of Filfla just off the Zurrieq coast.

The small island of Filfla just off the Zurrieq coast.

At some stage this was a river bed with a probability that parts of it ran underground. When discovered in the mid-19th Century it was found to be teeming with bones of African dwarf elephants, hippopotami, deer and bears with the elephants and hippos having become extinct about 10,000 years ago. Equally interesting, the first signs of human settlement in Malta were found there and deemed to stretch back to 7,500 BC.

 The Blue Grotto in all its splendour.

The Blue Grotto in all its splendour.

Another natural phenomenon near Zurrieq is the sizeable ‘sink hole’ at Qrendi, known as ‘Il-Maqluba’ (‘The Upside Down One’), a crater-like circular depression that is thought to have collapsed because underwater flood rivers eroded the base and caused the collapse. Myth had it there was a small habitation there but the inhabitants were so evil that God’s wrath somersaulted the surface and buried them all alive.

 The prehistoric underground cave at Ghar Dalam (The Cave of Darkness).

The prehistoric underground cave at Ghar Dalam (The Cave of Darkness).

Whether underwater, on land or underground, Malta and Gozo are a vast treasure trove of a past turbulent geophysical history, much of which was researched and charted by the late archaeologist David Trump (no, DAVID not DONALD) who passed away recently aged 85. More about him and his disovery feats in a further article.

ALBERT FENECH

 Entrance to Ghar Dalam, underground cave.

Entrance to Ghar Dalam, underground cave.

 

 The Qrendi sink-hole known as 'Il-Maqluba' (The Upside Down one).

The Qrendi sink-hole known as ‘Il-Maqluba’ (The Upside Down one).

 

 'Il-Maqluba' fertile even in parched summer because of underground water streams.

‘Il-Maqluba’ fertile even in parched summer because of underground water streams.

About Albert Fenech

Born in 1946, Albert Fenech’s family took up UK residence in 1954 where he spent his boyhood and youth before temporarily returning to Malta between 1957 and 1959 and then coming back to Malta permanently in 1965. He spent eight years as a full-time journalist with “The Times of Malta” before taking up a career in HR Management but still retained his roots by actively pursuing freelance journalism and broadcasting for various media outlets covering social issues, current affairs, sports and travel.